Mentioned for the first time in 854, Ulm was one of Europe's most important cities in the Middle Ages and leader of the Swabian League of Cities. After the Thirty Years War and the War of Spanish Succession, Ulm's power declined. In 1802 it was stripped of its status as Imperial City. It has a long tradition of industry and trade. The university, which was founded in 1967, is a model for cooperation between science, research and the technologies of the future.